A job analysis is the process of gathering and analysing information about the content and requirements of a job, as well as the context in which the job is performed. It helps to outline how the job is done, as well as what the job is.
A well-done job analysis not only helps to construct an effective competency framework, but it can also help your company to avoid legal challenges to your selection process, develop your teams and even help to introduce a whole new company culture.
How do you conduct a job analysis?
Let’s start by addressing the fact that it’s a time-consuming process, but one that has a lot of value when done correctly.
A good starting place is to review any information that already exists about a job, such as job ads that have been used to attract candidates or previous job descriptions. This will help outline what the job consists of.
Using a survey can be a good way to get lots of opinions and information from different people doing the job without using too much of their time.
Another step is to interview people, and then observe people doing the job, or if possible, do the job yourself to see what it involves. If possible, asking people to keep note of what they do day-to-day in the job is also very helpful.
When it comes to choosing people to participate in the job analysis, consider the tenure of the people you’re talking to, the number of people that are involved and who best represents the role with the intent to capture ‘what good looks like’.
5 types of interviews to utilise when conducting a job analysis
1) Repertory grid technique
This interview involves speaking to the manager of the job role in a structured way to learn what characteristics they would recognise as key to effective performance for those people in the target role.
Try asking open ended questions to get more comprehensive answers.
2) Critical incident technique
This type of interview involves speaking to people already in the job - ask them about the key events that are important to helping them perform in the job.
These types of interviews usually last around an hour and should cover 4-5 events
3) Visionary Interview
A visionary interview should be with someone more senior in the organisation. It’s an opportunity to capture ideas on how the organisation is moving forward in the future. It essentially links your competency framework with the wider business and helps to establish what job roles need to look like to align with the future of the company.
4) Competency card sort interview
A competency card interview involves asking your interviewees to rank the different competencies of the role by priority. To do this, use pre-printed cards or make your own and allow the interviewee to rank the competencies based on:
5) Focus Groups
Focus groups are a really good way to speak to multiple people at one time (aim for around 6) - with everyone in a room, ask critical incident questions or use competency cards to gather the information needed.
You can also ask the focus group to give feedback on each other's comments.
These 5 interview types help to conduct a comprehensive and informative job analysis, which will further help to develop your competency framework, leading to more hiring success and better employees in the future.